TOGAF 9.1 Released – What does it mean to you?

If you are planning to take up TOGAF certification examination, you would definitely want to know how the release of TOGAF 9.1 impacts you. You would want to which version you need to study.

Here is the simple guideline. If you are planning to appear for the exam…

  1. …before June 2012 the you should study TOGAF 9
  2. …between June 2012 and May 2013 then you can study either TOGAF 9 of 9.1
  3. …after June 2013 it is only TOGAF 9.1

In a nutshell, if you have already done most of the studying using TOGAF 9.0 then you have slightly more than a year to clear the exam. However, if you have yet to begin the study you better start with 9.1.

What are the main differences between TOGAF 9 and 9.1?

The Open Group has published a presentation in the form of a PDF which provides an overview of the differences – here is the link.

If you would prefer to have a look at the difference as a two pager then I recommend that you go through this post of Mike Walker.

However, I think the biggest difference between the two is how the objectives of each of the ADM phase are written. The latest version seems to be significant improvement. This is also the most important change for those of you who want to appear for the foundation level exam.

You may also need to go through Phase E and F more carefully as they have been reworked.

Comparison of ADM Objectives – TOGAF 9 vs. TOGAF 9.1

Phase Objective as per TOGAF 9 Objective as per TOGAF 9.1
Preliminary
  • To review the organizational context for conducting enterprise architecture
  • To identify the sponsor stakeholder(s) and other major stakeholders impacted by the business directive to create an enterprise architecture and determine their requirements and priorities from the enterprise, their relationships with the enterprise, and required working behaviors with each other
  • To ensure that everyone who will be involved in, or benefit from, this approach is committed to the success of the architectural process
  • To enable the architecture sponsor to create requirements for work across the affected business areas
  • To identify and scope the elements of the enterprise organizations affected by the business directive and define the constraints and assumptions (particularly in a federated architecture environment)
  • To define the ‘‘architecture footprint’’ for the organization — the people responsible for performing architecture work, where they are located, and their responsibilities
  • To define the framework and detailed methodologies that are going to be used to develop enterprise architectures in the organization concerned (typically, an adaptation of the generic ADM)
  • To confirm a governance and support framework that will provide business process and resources for architecture governance through the ADM cycle; these will confirm the fitness-for-purpose of the Target Architecture and measure its ongoing effectiveness (normally includes a pilot project)
  • To select and implement supporting tools and other infrastructure to support the architecture activity
  • To define the architecture principles that will form part of the constraints on any architecture work
  1. Determine the Architecture Capability desired by the organization:
    • Review the organizational context for conducting enterprise architecture
    • Identify and scope the elements of the enterprise organizations affected by the Architecture Capability
    • Identify the established frameworks, methods, and processes that intersect with the Architecture Capability
    • Establish Capability Maturity target
  2. Establish the Architecture Capability:
    • Define and establish the Organizational Model for Enterprise Architecture
    • Define and establish the detailed process and resources for architecture governance
    • Select and implement tools that support the Architecture Capability
    • Define the Architecture Principles
Phase A
  • To ensure that this evolution of the architecture development cycle has proper recognition and endorsement from the corporate management of the enterprise, and the support and commitment of the necessary line management
  • To define and organize an architecture development cycle within the overall context of the architecture framework, as established in the Preliminary phase
  • To validate the business principles, business goals, and strategic business drivers of the organization and the enterprise architecture Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • To define the scope of, and to identify and prioritize the components of, the Baseline Architecture effort
  • To define the relevant stakeholders, and their concerns and objectives
  • To define the key business requirements to be addressed in this architecture effort, and the constraints that must be dealt with
  • To articulate an Architecture Vision and formalize the value proposition that demonstrates a response to those requirements and constraints
  • To create a comprehensive plan that addresses scheduling, resourcing, financing, communication, risks, constraints, assumptions, and dependencies, in line with the project management frameworks adopted by the enterprise (such as PRINCE2 or PMBOK)
  • To secure formal approval to proceed
  • To understand the impact on, and of, other enterprise architecture development cycles ongoing in parallel
  1. Develop a high-level aspirational vision of the capabilities and business value to be delivered as a result of the proposed enterprise architecture
  2. Obtain approval for a Statement of Architecture Work that defines a program of works to develop and deploy the architecture outlined in the Architecture Vision

 

Phase B
  • To describe the Baseline Business Architecture
  • To develop a Target Business Architecture, describing the product and/or service strategy, and the organizational, functional, process, information, and geographic aspects of the business environment, based on the business principles, business goals, and strategic drivers
  • To analyze the gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures
  • To select and develop the relevant architecture viewpoints that will enable the architect to demonstrate how the stakeholder concerns are addressed in the Business Architecture
  • To select the relevant tools and techniques to be used in association with the selected viewpoints
  1. Develop the Target Business Architecture that describes how the enterprise needs to operate to achieve the business goals, and respond to the strategic drivers set out in the Architecture Vision, in a way that addresses the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures

 

Phase C The objective of Phase C is to develop Target Architectures covering either or both (depending on project scope) of the data and application systems domains.Information Systems Architecture focuses on identifying and defining the applications and data considerations that support an enterprise’s Business Architecture; for example, by defining views that relate to information, knowledge, application services, etc.
  1. Develop the Target Information Systems (Data and Application) Architecture, describing how the enterprise’s Information Systems Architecture will enable the Business Architecture and the Architecture Vision, in a way that addresses the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Information Systems (Data and Application) Architectures

 

Phase D The Technology Architecture phase seeks to map application components defined in the Application Architecture phase into a set of technology components, which represent software and hardware components, available from the market or configured within the organization into technology platforms.As Technology Architecture defines the physical realization of an architectural solution, it has strong links to implementation and migration planning.Technology Architecture will define baseline (i.e., current) and target views of the technology portfolio, detailing the roadmap towards the Target Architecture, and to identify key work packages in the roadmap. Technology Architecture completes the set of architectural information and therefore supports cost assessment for particular migration scenarios. 
  1. Develop the Target Technology Architecture that enables the logical and physical application and data components and the Architecture Vision, addressing the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
  2. Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Technology Architectures

 

Phase E
  • To review the target business objectives and capabilities, consolidate the gaps from Phases B to D, and then organize groups of building blocks to address these capabilities
  • To review and confirm the enterprise’s current parameters for and ability to absorb change
  • To derive a series of Transition Architectures that deliver continuous business value (e.g., capability increments) through the exploitation of opportunities to realize the building blocks
  • To generate and gain consensus on an outline Implementation and Migration Strategy
  1. Generate the initial complete version of the Architecture Roadmap, based upon the gap analysis and candidate Architecture Roadmap components from Phases B, C, and D
  2. Deter mine whether an incremental approach is required, and if so identify Transition Architectures that will deliver continuous business value

 

Phase F
  • To ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the various management frameworks in use within the enterprise
  • To prioritize all work packages, projects, and building blocks by assigning business value to each and conducting a cost/business analysis
  • To finalize the Architecture Vision and Architecture Definition Documents, in line with the agreed implementation approach
  • To confirm the Transition Architectures defined in Phase E with relevant stakeholders
  • To create, evolve, and monitor the detailed Implementation and Migration Plan providing necessary resources to enable the realization of the Transition Architectures, as defined in Phase E
  1. Finalize the Architecture Roadmap and the supporting Implementation and Migration Plan
  2. Ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the enterprise’s approach to managing and implementing change in the enterprise’s overall change portfolio
  3. Ensure that the business value and cost of work packages and Transition Architectures is understood by key stakeholders

 

Phase G
  • To formulate recommendations for each implementation project
  • To govern and manage an Architecture Contract covering the overall implementation and deployment process
  • To perform appropriate governance functions while the solution is being implemented and deployed
  • To ensure conformance with the defined architecture by implementation projects and other projects
  • To ensure that the program of solutions is deployed successfully, as a planned program of work
  • To ensure conformance of the deployed solution with the Target Architecture
  • To mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution
  1. Ensure conformance with the Target Architecture by implementation projects
  2. Perform appropriate Architecture Governance functions for the solution and any implementation-driven architecture Change Requests

 

Phase H
  • To ensure that baseline architectures continue to be fit-for-purpose
  • To assess the performance of the architecture and make recommendations for change
  • To assess changes to the framework and principles set up in previous phases
  • To establish an architecture change management process for the new enterprise architecture baseline that is achieved with completion of Phase G
  • To maximize the business value from the architecture and ongoing operations
  • To operate the Governance Framework
  1. Ensure that the architecture lifecycle is maintained
  2. Ensure that the Architecture Governance Framework is executed
  3. Ensure that the enterprise Architecture Capability meets current requirements

 

Here are the links to the material from The Open Group

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TOGAF

TOGAF – Preparation Aid for Part 2

The questions for the Part 2 Examination consist of eight complex scenario questions. You need to read a scenario describing a situation where TOGAF is being applied. The question will then ask how TOGAF would be used to address a particular point. Four possible answers are provided. There is one correct answer, two partially correct answers and one incorrect answer for the situation. The correct answer scores five points, the second best answer three points, and the third best answer one point. The incorrect answer scores zero points. The pass mark is 60%. The eight scenarios are drawn from the following major topic areas:

  1. Phases Preliminary, A, Requirements Management
  2. Architecture Definition (Phases B, C, D)
  3. Transition Planning (Phases E and F)
  4. Governance (Phases G and H)
  5. Adapting the ADM
  6. Architecture Content Framework
  7. TOGAF Reference Models
  8. Architecture Capability Framework

How to prepare for Part 2?

The key to success in the part 2 exam is to recognize the most “TOGAFish” answer! Let me give you two example answers without telling you the question – just try to guess which of them are more “TOGAFish”.

  • You recommend that risk management techniques be used throughout the program. This will enable you to assess the risks associated with the proposed business transformation and ensure suitable business continuity plans are in place. You then ensure that in the Implementation Governance phase, a residual risk assessment is conducted to determine the best way to manage risks that cannot be mitigated.
  • You propose to utilize a risk management framework in the Implementation Governance phase. This will enable you to assess the risks associated with the proposed business transformation. You then ensure that the initial level of risk is well understood before issuing the Architecture Contracts.

I suppose you have guessed it – the first one is the right answer because it talks about “residual risk” which is one of the important TOGAF concepts for risk management. However, there is another class of questions which cannot be answered like this. These are related to the use of viewpoints.

Viewpoints

Unfortunately, the Open Group study guide for the part 2 does not provide enough explanation of the different viewpoints. You need to fall back on the “TOGAF version 9” documentation and read chapter 35. Here are 9 multiple choice questions to help you test your understanding:

 

1. You need to make an impactful presentation of the high-level view of the interaction with the outside world to quickly on-board and align stakeholders for a particular change initiative, so that all participants understand the high-level functional and organizational context of the architecture engagement. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Value Chain Diagram

B. Solution Concept Diagram

C Business Interaction Matrix

D. Functional Decomposition Diagram

2. You want to present a ”pencil sketch” of the expected solution at the outset of the engagement. It should embody key objectives, requirements, and constraints for the engagement and also highlight work areas to be investigated in more detail with formal architecture modeling. You need to make all participants understand what the architecture engagement is seeking to achieve and how it is expected that a particular solution approach will meet the needs of the enterprise. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Value Chain Diagram

B. Solution Concept Diagram

C. Driver/Goal/Objective Catalog

D. Business Footprint Diagram

3. You want to present to the senior-level (CxO) stakeholders a view which depicts the links between business goals, organizational units, business functions, and services, and maps these functions to the technical components delivering the required capability. The view should provide a clear traceability between a technical component and the business goal that it satisfies, whilst also demonstrating ownership of the services identified. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Solution Concept Diagram

B. Business Footprint Diagram

C. Driver/Goal/Objective Catalog

D. Goal/Objective/Service Diagram

4. As a part of defining the Data Architecture you need to clearly assign ownership of data entities, understand the data and information exchange requirements and determine whether any data entities are missing and need to be created. You expect this view to help enable development of data governance programs across the enterprise. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Data Entity/Data Component Catalog

B. Data Entity/Business Function Matrix

C. Data Dissemination Diagram

D. System/Data Matrix

5. As a part of defining the Data Architecture you need to support the gap analysis and determine whether any of the applications are missing and as a result need to be created. You also need to identify the degree of data duplication within different applications, and the scale of the data lifecycle and understand where the same data is updated by different applications. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Data Entity/Data Component Catalog

B. Data Entity/Business Function Matrix

C. Data Dissemination Diagram

D. System/Data Matrix

6. As a part of defining the Information System Architecture you need to come up with an indication of the business criticality of application components by assigning business value to data it manages. In the process you also need to show how the logical entities are to be physically realized by application components. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Data Entity/Business Function Matrix

B. Data Dissemination Diagram

C. System/Data Matrix

D. Data Lifecycle diagram

7. As a part of defining the Information System Architecture you need to understand the degree of interaction between applications, identifying those that are central in terms of their dependencies on other systems. You also need to scope the overall dependencies between applications. Which viewpoint you will NOT choose?

A. Interface Catalog

B. Application Interaction Matrix

C. Application Communication Diagram

D. System/Function Matrix

8. You need to understand the application support requirements of the business services and processes carried out by an organization unit and determine whether any of the applications are missing and as a result need to be created. Which viewpoint will you choose?

A. Software Distribution Diagram

B. System Use-Case Diagram

C. System/Function Matrix

D. System/Organization Matrix

9. Which of the following viewpoint you will NOT use to understand the security requirements?

A. Role Catalog, Actor/Role Matrix and Role/System Matrix

B. Data Security Diagram

C. Networked Computing/Hardware Diagram

D. System/Technology Matrix

Answers

  1. A – Value Chain Diagram
  2. B – Solution Concept Diagram
  3. B – Business Footprint Diagram
  4. BData Entity/Business Function Matrix
  5. DSystem/Data Matrix
  6. BData Dissemination Diagram
  7. DSystem/Function Matrix
  8. DSystem/Organization Matrix
  9. DSystem/Technology Matrix

More materials and tests for TOGAF preparation:

 

TOGAF Foundation Level Certification – Another Practice Test (free sample questions)

As I had mentioned earlier, there is a paucity of free sample questions for the TOGAF 9 foundation or the part 1 test. I had created one set earlier and there are two other set available for free:

Here is another set of 40 questions.

Basic Concepts (3 questions)

1. What according to TOGAF is an Enterprise?

(A)

Entire business group or corporation comprising of all local and international main and sub offices, divisions, subsidiaries, and departments

(B)

Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals

(C)

Any large organization

(D)

An enterprise is an organization that uses computers

(E)

A large corporation or government agency, but it may also refer to a company of any size with many systems and users to manage
2. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about an Architecture Framework?

(A)

An architecture framework is a tool that can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures

(B)

An architecture framework should describe a method for designing an information system in terms of a set of building blocks, and for showing how the building blocks fit together

(C)

Architecture Framework is a set of resources, guidelines, templates, background information, etc. provided to help the architect establish an architecture practice within an organization

(D)

An architecture framework should contain a set of tools and provide a common vocabulary

(E)

An architecture framework should also include a list of recommended standards and compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks
3. Which of the following statement is NOT a reason for suitability of TOGAF as a Framework for Enterprise Architecture?

(A)

It provides an immediate return on investment

(B)

It has been developed through the collaborative efforts of more than 300 Architecture Forum member companies from some of the world’s leading IT customers and vendors and represents best practice in architecture development

(C)

It will allow architectures to be developed that are consistent, reflect the needs of stakeholders, employ best practice, and give due consideration both to current requirements and to the likely future needs of the business

(D)

It plays an important role in helping to “de-mystify” and de-risk the architecture development process

(E)

It provides a platform for adding value, and enables users to build genuinely open systems-based solutions to address their business issues and needs

Core Concepts (3 questions)

4. Which of the following is NOT a part of the Architecture Capability Framework?

(A)

Standards with which new architectures must comply

(B)

Guidelines for establishing an Architecture Capability within an organization

(C)

A set of role, skill, and experience norms for staff undertaking enterprise architecture work

(D)

Techniques for evaluating and quantifying an organization’s maturity in enterprise architecture

(E)

Framework and guidelines for Architecture Governance
5. TOGAF recommends running the enterprise architecture practice like any other operational unit within a business. For that, which of the following processes capability needs to be established?

(A)

Environment Management, Supplier Management and Network Management

(B)

Risk Management, Resource Management and IT Management

(C)

Communications and Stakeholder Management, Quality Management and Presentation Management

(D)

Financial Management, Performance Management and Service Management

(E)

Configuration Management, Release Management and Change management
6. According to TOGAF Document Categorization Model, which are the four categories of content?

(A)

Central, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting

(B)

Core, Mandated, Reference and Supplemental

(C)

Central, Mandated, Recommended and Supplemental

(D)

Central, Mandated, Reference and Supplemental

(E)

Core, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting

Introduction to the ADM (3 questions)

7. Which of the following statements is NOT true for ADM?

(A)

ADM defines a recommended sequence for the various phases and steps involved in developing an organization-wide enterprise architecture

(B)

ADM does not determine the scope for an enterprise architecture activity; this must be determined by the organization itself

(C)

The numbering scheme provided in the TOGAF ADM for its outputs is a mandated practice

(D)

An output in an early ADM phase may be modified in a later phase

(E)

The ADM has ten phases
8. Which of the following is a Key Point of the ADM Cycle?

(A)

Decisions taken should be based on the value accruing to the enterprise only

(B)

ADM provides a recommended the scope of activity which can be tailored by the organization itself

(C)

The main guideline is to focus on what creates value to the enterprise, and to select horizontal and vertical scope, and project schedules, accordingly

(D)

Where necessary, use of the ADM should be tailored to meet the needs of the organization but phases cannot be omitted

(E)

Though ADM is iterative, the decisions regarding enterprise coverage, level of detail, time period and architecture asset re-use needs to be take upfront
9. Which of the following is NOT a correct reason for limiting the scope of the Architecture Activity?

(A)

The inflexibility of the baseline IT technical architecture

(B)

The realities of resource and time constraints often mean there is not enough time, funding, or resources to build a top-down, all-inclusive architecture description encompassing all four architecture domains

(C)

To ensure an appropriate demarcation between the architecture effort and other, related activities (system design, system engineering, system development)

(D)

The organizational authority of the team producing the architecture

(E)

The objectives and stakeholder concerns to be addressed within the architecture

The Enterprise Continuum and Tools (4 questions)

10. Which among the following statements about Architecture Continuum is NOT true?

(A)

It offers a consistent way to define and understand the generic rules, representations, and relationships in an architecture, including traceability and derivation relationships

(B)

It represents a structuring of Architecture Building Blocks (ABBs) which are re-usable architecture assets

(C)

Every artifact in the Solutions Continuum has a one to one relationship with a corresponding artifact in the Architecture Continuum

(D)

It shows the relationships among foundational frameworks, common system architectures, industry architectures, and enterprise architectures

(E)

It is a useful tool to discover commonality and eliminate unnecessary redundancy
11. The relationship between the Architecture Continuum and the Solutions Continuum is one of ___ (complete the sentence).

(A)

Guidance, derivation and support

(B)

Guidance, direction and support

(C)

Governance, direction and support

(D)

Guidance, direction and supplementing

(E)

Governance, derivation and supplementing
12. What are the levels of granularity the Architecture Landscape is divided into?

(A)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(B)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Transition Architectures

(C)

Enterprise Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(D)

Enterprise Architectures, Segment Architectures and Transition Architectures

(E)

Enterprise Architectures, Solution Architectures and Transition Architectures
13. Which of the following is NOT a stated reason for using a tool for Enterprise Continuum?

(A)

Promote re-use

(B)

Enable sharing of architecture information within an organization

(C)

Facilitate easier maintenance of the software assets

(D)

Ensure common terminology is used

(E)

Provide stakeholders with relevant models

ADM Phases (9 questions)

14. Which of the following is NOT an objective of the Preliminary phase?

(A)

Understand the business environment

(B)

Ensure high-level management commitment and obtain agreement on scope

(C)

Establish principles and establish governance structure

(D)

Agree architecture method to be adopted

(E)

Articulate an Architecture Vision and value proposition
15. What first-cut, high-level description does Architecture Vision provide?

(A)

Baseline Architectures, Target Architectures and Gap Analysis

(B)

Architecture Definition, Architecture Specification and Architecture Roadmap

(C)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(D)

Business Architectures, Data Architectures, Application Architectures and Technology Architectures

(E)

Enterprise Architectures, Solution Architectures and Transition Architectures
16. Which are the Key Considerations for the Data Architecture?

(A)

Data Analysis, Data Integrity and Data Security

(B)

Data Management, Data Integrity and Data Governance

(C)

Data Management, Data Migration and Data Governance

(D)

Data Analysis, Data Migration and Data Governance

(E)

Data Analysis, Data Integrity and Data Governance
17. Which of the following is NOT an activity in Phase E?

(A)

Perform initial implementation planning

(B)

Group projects into Transition Architectures

(C)

Decide on approach — Make versus buy versus re-use

(D)

Identify the major implementation projects

(E)

Perform a cost/benefit analysis and a risk assessment
18. Which of the following is NOT an approach in Phase G?

(A)

Creation of an Implementation and Migration Plan in co-operation with the portfolio and project managers

(B)

Adopt a phased deployment schedule that reflects the business priorities embodied in the Architecture Roadmap

(C)

Follow the organization’s standard for corporate, IT, and Architecture Governance

(D)

Use the organization’s established portfolio/program management approach, where this exists

(E)

Define an operations framework to ensure the effective long life of the deployed solution
19. Which of the following statements about Requirements Management phase is correct?

(A)

This phase is executed at the beginning

(B)

It focuses on minimizing changes to requirement

(C)

It does not dispose of, address, or prioritize any requirements; this is done within the relevant phase of the ADM

(D)

TOGAF has a recommend process for requirements management

(E)

Prioritizing requirement is an activity of this phase
20. How is the scope of the enterprise architecture projects decided?

(A)

The scope is defined in phase A and refined in phases B, C and D

(B)

Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase and it is defined in phase A

(C)

The scope is defined in the Preliminary phase and agreement is reached in phase A

(D)

Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase but the definition happens through phase A to D

(E)

The scope is defined and agree upon in the Preliminary phase
21. In which phase is the make versus buy versus re-use decision taken?

(A)

Phase A

(B)

Phase D

(C)

Phase E

(D)

Phase F

(E)

Phase G
22. In which phase are the Architecture Contracts prepared?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase E

(D)

Phase F

(E)

Phase G

ADM Guidelines and Techniques (6 questions)

23. Which of the following is not a part of the guidelines for adapting the ADM process?

(A)

Coexisting with other Enterprise Architecture frameworks

(B)

Ways to apply iteration to the ADM

(C)

Applying the ADM at different levels of the enterprise

(D)

Security considerations when applying the ADM

(E)

Using TOGAF to define Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs)
24. Regarding Architecture Principle, which of the following statement is NOT correct?

(A)

TOGAF specifies a template for defining Architecture Principles

(B)

Architecture principles are a subset of IT principles that relate to architecture work

(C)

Principles must be derived from business goal

(D)

There are five criteria that distinguish a good set of principles – Understandability, Robustness, Completeness, Consistency and Stability

(E)

Principles should not be contradictory to the point where adhering to one principle would violate the spirit of another
25. Where the process of creating a Business Scenario does starts?

(A)

Business and Technical environments

(B)

Problem statements

(C)

Desired objectives

(D)

Human participants

(E)

Roles and responsibilities
26. In which phases is the Gap Analysis technique used?

(A)

Phases B, C, D, and E

(B)

Phases B, C, and D

(C)

Phases A, B, C, D, and E

(D)

Phases A, B, C and D

(E)

Phases C, D, and E
27. For which phases is the Business Transformation Readiness Assessment a key technique?

(A)

Phases E only

(B)

Phases E, F and G

(C)

Phases A, E and F

(D)

Phases from A to F

(E)

Phases E and F
28. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Corporate Strategic Plan manages and creates Capabilities

(B)

Capability consists of Capability Increment

(C)

Capability is documented in Architecture Vision

(D)

Capability Increment is documented by Transition Architecture

(E)

Architecture and Solution Building Blocks are the basis for Capability Increment Solutions

Architecture Governance (4 questions)

29. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Effective governance ensures that problems are identified early and that subsequent changes to the environment occur in a controlled manner

(B)

Architecture Governance is the practice by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

(C)

Architecture Governance typically operates within a hierarchy of governance structures

(D)

Corporate Governance is a broad topic and outside the scope of the TOGAF framework

(E)

Architecture Governance helps creating organizational structures that enabled each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency
30. Which are the six characteristics used in TOGAF to highlight both the value and necessity for governance?

(A)

Discipline, Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility and Fairness

(B)

Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness and Compliance

(C)

Independence, Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance and Discipline

(D)

Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance, Discipline and Transparency

(E)

Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance, Discipline, Transparency and Independence
31. Which of the following is NOT the responsibility of Architecture Board?

(A)

Ensuring consistency between sub-architectures

(B)

Identifying re-usable components

(C)

Identification of risk and subsequent risk mitigation

(D)

Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(E)

Providing the basis for all decision-making with regard to changes to the architectures
32. Which of the following is NOT a recommendation for Architecture Capability building?

(A)

Establishing a sustainable Architecture Capability within an organization can be achieved by adhering to the same approach that is used to establish any other capability

(B)

TOGAF states that Architecture Capability development should not be seen as a phase of an architecture project but as a separate one-off project

(C)

The ADM is an ideal method to be used to architect and govern the implementation of such Architecture Capability

(D)

Applying the ADM with the specific Architecture Vision to establish an architecture practice within the organization would help building Architecture Capability

(E)

Implementing any capability within an organization would require the design of the four domain architectures

Architecture Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders (2 questions)

33. What question should the architect answer to ensure the completeness of the architecture?

(A)

Can the views be connected to each other?

(B)

Can the conflicting concerns be reconciled?

(C)

What trade-offs have been made?

(D)

Does it address all the concerns of its stakeholders?

(E)

Is the architecture implementable?
34. Which of the following relationship between view, viewpoint, stakeholder and architecture is correct?

(A)

Stakeholder concern is address by one or more views

(B)

An architecture consists of multiple viewpoints

(C)

One of more viewpoint can be used to cover a concern

(D)

A Viewpoint conforms to a view

(E)

Viewpoint library contains multiple views

Building Blocks (2 questions)

35. Which among the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

TOGAF recommends the way in which functionality, products, and custom developments are assembled into building blocks

(B)

Every organization must decide for itself what arrangement of building blocks works best for it

(C)

A good choice of building blocks can lead to improvements in legacy system integration, interoperability, and flexibility in the creation of new systems and applications

(D)

An architecture is a composition of a set of building blocks and the specification of how those building blocks are connected

(E)

Various building blocks in an architecture specify the services required in an enterprise specific system
36. Which among the following statements about patterns is NOT correct?

(A)

Pattern is “an idea that has been useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others”

(B)

Patterns are considered to be a way of putting building blocks into context

(C)

Patterns can tell when, why, and what trade-offs you have to make

(D)

Patterns are a package of functionality defined to meet business needs across an organization

(E)

Patterns offer the promise of helping the architect to solutions that have been proven to deliver effective in the past

ADM Deliverables (2 questions)

37. What does the Architecture Requirements Specification provide?

(A)

A qualitative view of the solution and aims to communicate the intent of the architects

(B)

A quantitative view of the solution stating measurable criteria

(C)

List of individual increments of change

(D)

An aspirational view of the end architecture product

(E)

Context for architecture work by describing the needs
38. Which of the following is NOT a key ADM Deliverable?

(A)

Architecture Contract

(B)

Architecture Principles

(C)

Architecture Repository

(D)

Change Request

(E)

Integrated Information Infrastructure

TOGAF Reference Models (2 questions)

39. Which among the following are NOT service categories in the TRM?

(A)

Data management and data interchange

(B)

User interface, graphics and image

(C)

Security, system and network management

(D)

Software engineering

(E)

Information brokers and application integrators
40. Which among the following statements about Boundary-less Information Flow is NOT correct?

(A)

It is a trademark of The Open Group

(B)

It provides insights related to customer needs

(C)

An infrastructure that provides Boundaryless Information Flow has open standard components

(D)

Its problem space is one that is shared by many customer members of The Open Group, and by many similar organizations worldwide

(E)

It is a shorthand representation of “access to integrated information to support business process improvements”

Answers

  1. B – Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals
  2. C – Architecture Framework is a set of resources, guidelines, templates, background information, etc. provided to help the architect establish an architecture practice within an organization
  3. A – It provides an immediate return on investment
  4. A – Standards with which new architectures must comply
  5. D – Financial Management, Performance Management and Service Management
  6. E – Core, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting
  7. C – The numbering scheme provided in the TOGAF ADM for its outputs is a mandated practice
  8. C – The main guideline is to focus on what creates value to the enterprise, and to select horizontal and vertical scope, and project schedules, accordingly
  9. A – The inflexibility of the baseline IT technical architecture
  10. C – Every artifact in the Solutions Continuum has a one to one relationship with a corresponding artifact in the Architecture Continuum
  11. B – Guidance, direction and support
  12. A – Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures
  13. C – Facilitate easier maintenance of the software assets
  14. E – Articulate an Architecture Vision and value proposition
  15. D – Business Architectures, Data Architectures, Application Architectures and Technology Architectures
  16. C – Data Management, Data Migration and Data Governance
  17. E – Perform a cost/benefit analysis and a risk assessment
  18. A – Creation of an Implementation and Migration Plan in co-operation with the portfolio and project managers
  19. C – It does not dispose of, address, or prioritize any requirements; this is done within the relevant phase of the ADM
  20. B – Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase and it is defined in phase A
  21. C – Phase E
  22. E – Phase G
  23. A – Coexisting with other Enterprise Architecture frameworks
  24. C – Principles must be derived from business goal
  25. B – Problem statements
  26. A – Phases B, C, D, and E
  27. C – Phases A, E and F
  28. C – Capability is documented in Architecture Vision
  29. E – Architecture Governance helps creating organizational structures that enabled each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency
  30. A – Discipline, Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility and Fairness
  31. C – Identification of risk and subsequent risk mitigation
  32. B – TOGAF states that Architecture Capability development should not be seen as a phase of an architecture project but as a separate one-off project
  33. D – Does it address all the concerns of its stakeholders?
  34. C – One of more viewpoint can be used to cover a concern
  35. A – TOGAF recommends the way in which functionality, products, and custom developments are assembled into building blocks
  36. D – Patterns are a package of functionality defined to meet business needs across an organization
  37. B – A quantitative view of the solution stating measurable criteria
  38. E – Integrated Information Infrastructure
  39. E – Information brokers and application integrators
  40. B – It provides insights related to customer needs

TOGAF Foundation Level Certification – Aid for preparation (free sample questions)

If you plan to appear for a TOGAF foundation level certification or part 1 exam, one of the difficulties you will face is a lack of free sample questions. Some questions are provided as a part of the study guide, but if you want to more practice then you will have tough time locating anything freely available on the net. Here is couple of links which I could locate:

This lack of practice multiple choice questions prompted me to create my own set. I have gone by the advice of Chris Eaton to create this paper before I take the test to avoid any issue that these questions copy the official exam questions. Here is one set of 40 questions:

Basic Concepts (3 questions)

1.

Which is NOT one of the seven parts of TOGAF document?

(A)

ADM Guidelines and Techniques

(B)

Architecture Content Framework

(C)

Architecture Governance

(D)

TOGAF Reference Models

(E)

Architecture Capability Framework

 

2.

What is Architecture in the Context of TOGAF?

(A)

The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution

(B)

A rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g. the behavior) between them

(C)

An architecture is the most important, pervasive, top-level, strategic inventions, decisions, and their associated rationales about the overall structure (i.e., essential elements and their relationships) and associated characteristics and behavior

(D)

Architecture is the use of abstractions and models to simplify and communicate complex structures and processes to improve understanding and forecasting

(E)

A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation or the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time

 

3.

Which of the following according to TOGAF is NOT a reason to use an Enterprise Architecture Framework?

(A)

It will speed up and simplify architecture development

(B)

It will ensure more complete coverage of the designed solution

(C)

It will make certain that the architecture selected allows for future growth in response to the needs of the business

(D)

Its use may be mandated by federal agencies

(E)

It will ensure compliance and protect the interest of stakeholders

 

Core Concepts (3 questions)

4.

Which are the three main categories of architectural work product does Architecture Content Framework specify?

(A)

Architecture Vision, Architecture Requirements Specification and Architecture Roadmap

(B)

Source Architecture, Target Architecture and Gap Analysis

(C)

Architecture Vision, Architecture Design Document and Transition Architecture

(D)

Building Block, Artifact and Deliverable

(E)

Request for Architecture Work, Statement of Architecture Work and Architecture Contract

 

5.

Which is NOT a part of Architecture Repository?

(A)

The organizationally tailored application of an architecture framework, including a meta-model for architecture content

(B)

The parameters, structures, and processes that support governance of the Architecture Repository

(C)

An architectural view of the building blocks that are in use within the organization today

(D)

A Stakeholder analysis and map

(E)

A record of governance activity across the enterprise

 

6.

Which of these are NOT the benefits of Architecture Governance?

(A)

Increased visibility supporting internal processes and external parties’ requirements

(B)

Greater shareholder value

(C)

Improved software development productivity

(D)

Protection of the existing asset base through maximizing re-use

(E)

Controlled risk management

 

Introduction to the ADM (3 questions)

7.

Does ADM support iteration?

(A)

Yes, you can only cycle around the ADM

(B)

Yes, you can cycle around all single individual phase

(C)

Yes, you can cycle around any combination of phases

(D)

Yes, you can cycle around ADM, iterate across specific phases or cycle through some of the phases

(E)

No, ADM is not iterative

 

8.

Which of the following statements about the relation between ADM and Architecture Repository is correct?

(A)

At relevant places throughout the ADM, there are reminders to consider which architecture assets from the Architecture Repository the architect should use

(B)

The practical implementation of the Enterprise Continuum will typically take the form of an Architecture Repository that includes reference architectures, models, and patterns mandated in TOGAF

(C)

In executing the ADM, the architect is only developing a snapshot of the enterprise at particular points in time, and populating the organization’s own Architecture Repository is outside the scope of ADM

(D)

The first execution of the ADM is simplified because of the re-use potential of the standard architecture assets available for re-use in TOGAF Architecture Repository

(E)

Architecture Repository is only accessed in the Requirement Management phase

 

9.

Which of the following is NOT a valid reason for wanting to tailor ADM for the specific need of the enterprise?

(A)

An important consideration is that the order of the phases in the ADM is to some extent dependent on the maturity of the architecture discipline within the enterprise concerned

(B)

An enterprise may wish to use or tailor the ADM in conjunction with the security best practices in use in the enterprise

(C)

The ADM is one of many corporate processes that make up the corporate governance model for an enterprise

(D)

The ADM is being mandated for use by a prime or lead contractor in an outsourcing situation, and needs to be tailored to achieve a suitable compromise between the contractor’s existing practices and the contracting enterprise’s requirements

(E)

The enterprise is a small-to-medium enterprise, and wishes to use a “cut-down” version of the ADM

 

The Enterprise Continuum and Tools (5 questions)

10.

Which of the following statements about Enterprise Continuum is NOT correct?

(A)

It is a view of the Architecture Repository that provides methods for classifying architecture and solution artifacts, both internal and external to the Architecture Repository

(B)

It is an important aid to communication and understanding, both within individual enterprises, and between customer enterprises and vendor organizations

(C)

It also represents an aid to organizing re-usable architecture and solution assets

(D)

It is a physical repository of all architecture assets models, patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts produced during application of the ADM

(E)

It represents an aid to communication

 

11.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

The Architecture Continuum provides a consistent way to describe and understand the implementation of the assets

(B)

A Foundation Architecture supports the complete enterprise operating environment

(C)

Common Systems Architectures guide the creation of an architecture useful for building common solutions across a wide number of relevant domains

(D)

Industry Architectures guide the integration of common systems components with industry specific components

(E)

Organization-Specific Architectures describe and guide the final deployment of user-written or third-party components that constitute effective solutions for particular enterprises

 

12.

Which of the following is NOT a part of Architecture Repository?

(A)

Architecture Landscape

(B)

Standards Information Base

(C)

Architecture Metamodel

(D)

Architecture Capability

(E)

Compliance Log

 

13.

What is a Standards Information Base?

(A)

It holds guidelines, templates, patterns

(B)

It holds a set of specifications, to which architectures must conform

(C)

It defines the parameters, structures, and processes that support governance

(D)

It describes the organizationally tailored application of an architecture framework

(E)

It holds view of the building blocks that are in use within the organization today

 

14.

What of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Enterprise Continuum is a virtual repository where as the Architecture Repository is a physical repository

(B)

Enterprise Continuum can be thought of as a view of the Architecture Repository

(C)

The Architecture Repository defines six classes for architectural information held in the repository

(D)

TOGAF recognizes the need to manage the content of the Enterprise Continuum using tools but does not provide any guidance on tool selection

(E)

The Solutions Continuum is a population of the architecture with reference building blocks – either purchased products or built components – that represent a solution to the enterprise’s business needs

 

ADM Phases (9 questions)

15.

In which phase does the Business Scenarios first get defined?

(A)

Preliminary phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase C

(E)

Phase D

 

16.

Which of the following statements about Business Architecture is NOT correct?

(A)

A knowledge of the Business Architecture is a prerequisite for architecture work in any other domain

(B)

Business Architecture is often necessary as a means of demonstrating the business value of subsequent architecture work

(C)

Business Architecture looks at the Enterprise in abstraction and does not look at the relationship between people and process

(D)

Business Architecture should support the agreed Architecture Vision

(E)

Business Architecture should demonstrate how stakeholder concerns are addressed

 

17.

Which of the following is NOT in the scope of Technology Architecture documentation?

(A)

Fundamental organization of the IT system

(B)

The principles governing its design and evolution IT system

(C)

Hardware, software, and communications technology and their relationships to each other and the environment

(D)

Technical implementation architecture

(E)

Target Technology Architecture that will form the basis of the subsequent implementation and migration planning

 

18.

Which of the following is NOT an objective of phase F?

(A)

To ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the various management frameworks in use within the enterprise

(B)

To prioritize all work packages, projects, and building blocks by assigning business value to each and conducting a cost/benefit analysis

(C)

To finalize the Architecture Vision and Architecture Definition Documents, in line with the agreed implementation approach

(D)

To confirm the Transition Architectures with the relevant stakeholders

(E)

Formulate recommendations for each implementation project

 

19.

Which of the following is NOT an objective of phase H?

(A)

Assess the performance of the architecture and make recommendations for change

(B)

Mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution

(C)

Maximize the business value from the architecture and ongoing operations

(D)

Ensure that Baseline Architectures continue to be fit-for-purpose

(E)

Establish an architecture change management process for the new enterprise architecture baseline that is achieved with completion of Phase G

 

20.

In which phase is an agreement reached on the architecture method to be adopted?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase E

(E)

Requirement Management Phase

 

21.

How is the Transition Architecture formulated?

(A)

It emerges through phase B to D and is finalized in phase E

(B)

It is first formulated in phase E and gets refined in phase F and G

(C)

It is formulated in phase E and then split into implementation projects

(D)

Based on the implementation projects selected in phase E, Transition Architectures is arrived at in phase F

(E)

In Phase E major implementation projects grouped into Transition Architectures and they are confirmed with relevant stakeholders in phase F

 

22.

In which phase is the cost/benefit analysis done?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase E

(E)

Phase F

 

23.

How is the Architecture Governance performed?

(A)

It is established in Phase A and operated on Phase F to H

(B)

It is established in Preliminary Phase, refined in Phase A and operated on Phase F to H

(C)

It is established in Phase A and operated on Phase E to G

(D)

It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on Phase G and H

(E)

It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on all subsequent phases

 

ADM Guidelines and Techniques (6 questions)

24.

Which of the following is NOT an ADM Guideline or Technique?

(A)

Architecture Principles

(B)

Usecase Modeling

(C)

Architecture Patterns

(D)

Interoperability Requirements

(E)

Capability-Based Planning

 

25.

Which of the following is NOT described by a Business Scenario?

(A)

A business process, application, or set of applications

(B)

The business and technology environment

(C)

The people and computing components who execute the scenario

(D)

The underlying business vision

(E)

The desired outcome of proper execution

 

26.

Which of the following is NOT the source of a business domain gap?

(A)

People gaps

(B)

Process gaps

(C)

Tools gaps

(D)

Information gaps

(E)

Data relationship gaps

 

27.

In which phase are the nature and security considerations of information and service exchanges determined?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase C

(E)

Phase D

 

28.

In which Phase is the risk identification and mitigation assessment worksheets are maintained as governance artifacts and are kept up-to-date?

(A)

Phase A

(B)

Phase E

(C)

Phase F

(D)

Phase G

(E)

Phase H

 

29.

Which among the following is a technique for discovering the need for a Capability?

(A)

Gap Analysis

(B)

Architecture Patterns

(C)

Interoperability Requirements

(D)

Business Scenario

(E)

Business Transformation Readiness Assessment

 

Architecture Governance (3 questions)

30.

Which of the following is NOT a part of Architecture Governance?

(A)

Implementing a system of controls over the creation and monitoring of all architectural components and activities

(B)

Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(C)

Implementing a system to ensure compliance with internal and external standards and regulatory obligations

(D)

Establishing processes that support effective management of the above processes within agreed parameters

(E)

Developing practices that ensure accountability to a clearly identified stakeholder community

 

31.

What does the Conceptual Structure of Architecture Governance Framework contain?

(A)

Compliance, Business Control , Monitoring and Reporting

(B)

Process, Content, Monitoring and Reporting

(C)

Process, Content, Repository and Process Flow Control

(D)

Content, Context, Process and Reporting

(E)

Business Control, Content, Monitoring and Reporting

 

32.

Which of the following is NOT the purpose of Architecture Compliance Review?

(A)

To improve the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(B)

To identify where the standards themselves may require modification

(C)

To identify services that are currently application-specific but might be provided as part of the enterprise infrastructure

(D)

To document strategies for collaboration, resource sharing, and other synergies across multiple architecture teams

(E)

To take advantage of advances in technology

 

Architecture Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders (2 questions)

33.

Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about concern?

(A)

Concerns determine the acceptability of the system

(B)

The terms “concern” and “requirement” are synonymous

(C)

Concerns are the root of the process of decomposition into requirements

(D)

Concerns are represented in the architecture by these requirements

(E)

Each stakeholder typically has interests in, or concerns relative to, that system

 

34.

Which steps among the following is NOT a recommended step to create the required views for a particular architecture?

(A)

Refer to any existing libraries of viewpoints

(B)

Select key stakeholders

(C)

Analyze their requirement and document them

(D)

Select appropriate viewpoints

(E)

Generate views of the system using the selected viewpoints as templates

 

Building Blocks (2 questions)

35.

Which of the following is NOT the characteristic of a good building block?

(A)

It considers implementation and usage, and evolves to exploit technology and standards

(B)

It may be assembled from other building blocks

(C)

It may be a subassembly of other building blocks

(D)

Ideally, a building block is re-usable and replaceable, and well specified with stable interfaces

(E)

It may specify implementation details

 

36.

What does Architecture Building Blocks do?

(A)

They define how the functionality will be realized through products and components

(B)

They capture architecture requirements

(C)

They define the implementation

(D)

They fulfill business requirements

(E)

They are product or vendor-aware

 

ADM Deliverables (2 questions)

37.

Which among the following is beyond the scope of governance of Architecture Contract?

(A)

Continuous monitoring to check integrity

(B)

Adherence to the principles and standards

(C)

Facilitate re-usablility

(D)

Identification of risks

(E)

Ensuring accountability, responsibility, and discipline

 

38.

In which phase is Capability Assessment carried out?

(A)

It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase E

(B)

It is first carried out in Preliminary Phase and updated in Phase A to E

(C)

It is first carried out in Phase A, updated in Phase E and finalized in Phase F

(D)

It is first carried out in Preliminary Phase, updated in Phase A to E and finalized in Phase F

(E)

It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase B to E

 

TOGAF Reference Models (2 questions)

39.

What is the TOGAF Technical Reference Model?

(A)

It is a reference model that focuses on the Application Software space

(B)

It is fundamentally an Application Architecture reference model – a model of the application components and application services software essential for an integrated information infrastructure

(C)

It enables each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency was for a long time accepted as the best approach to managing a large enterprise

(D)

It describes a fundamental architecture upon which other, more specific, architectures can be based

(E)

It points to rules and standards to assist in leveraging solutions and products within the value chain

 

40.

What among the following is NOT a part of the Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model taxonomy?

(A)

Information consumer application

(B)

Management utilities

(C)

Brokering application

(D)

Communication infrastructure interface

(E)

Information provider application

 

Answers

  1. C – Architecture Governance
  2. E – A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation or the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time
  3. E – It will ensure compliance and protect the interest of stakeholders
  4. D – Building Block, Artifact and Deliverable
  5. D – A Stakeholder analysis and map
  6. C – Improved software development productivity
  7. D – Yes, you can cycle around ADM, iterate across specific phases or cycle through some of the phases
  8. A – At relevant places throughout the ADM, there are reminders to consider which architecture assets from the Architecture Repository the architect should use
  9. B – An enterprise may wish to use or tailor the ADM in conjunction with the security best practices in use in the enterprise
  10. D – It is a physical repository of all architecture assets models, patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts produced during application of the ADM
  11. A – The Architecture Continuum provides a consistent way to describe and understand the implementation of the assets
  12. E – Compliance Log
  13. B – It holds a set of specifications, to which architectures must conform
  14. D – TOGAF recognizes the need to manage the content of the Enterprise Continuum using tools but does not provide any guidance on tool selection
  15. B – Phase A
  16. C – Business Architecture looks at the Enterprise in abstraction and does not look at the relationship between people and process
  17. D – Technical implementation architecture
  18. E – Formulate recommendations for each implementation project
  19. B – Mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution
  20. A – Preliminary Phase
  21. E – In Phase E major implementation projects grouped into Transition Architectures and they are confirmed with relevant stakeholders in phase F
  22. E – Phase F
  23. D – It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on Phase G and H
  24. B – Usecase Modeling
  25. D – The underlying business vision
  26. E – Data relationship gaps
  27. B – Phase A
  28. D – Phase G
  29. D – Business Scenario
  30. B – Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
  31. C – Process, Content, Repository and Process Flow Control
  32. A – To improve the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
  33. B – The terms “concern” and “requirement” are synonymous
  34. C – Analyze their requirement and document them
  35. E – It may specify implementation details
  36. B – They capture architecture requirements
  37. C – Facilitate re-usable
  38. A – It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase E
  39. D – It describes a fundamental architecture upon which other, more specific, architectures can be based
  40. D – Communication infrastructure interface

Architecture Governance – In TOGAF what does it mean

If you are clear about what governance means then you can skip the next section. However, if you have heard the term – Corporate Governance, SOA Governance, IT Governance – but you are not exactly sure about what it really means, then here is an explanation.

Suppose you are interested that an entity works in a way you want it to work. If you are managing the entity then you have the necessity authority to ensure it. However, you don’t manage the entity directly then what do you do? To do anything you need to have some authority or influence over the entity. You can discuss with the management team of the entity and come to an agreement on what needs to be done. Then you also come to an agreement on how to ensure that what you have agreed is followed.

In other words, you lay down a governance framework. Let us look at an example.

Government wants the corporate to follow certain guidelines – some dos and don’ts. But, government do not and cannot manage each and every corporate directly. So, they have in place Sarbanes–Oxley Act or SOX which is also known as ‘Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act’ or ‘Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act’. This is corporate governance. Similarly, you also have Basel II for banks, which try to ensure that banks don’t take too much risk with money invested with them.

To put governance in place you need to have:

  1. Discipline = Commitment to adhere to procedures, processes, and authority structures
  2. Transparency = Actions and decision support available for inspection
  3. Independence = Mechanisms to minimize or avoid potential conflicts of interest
  4. Accountability = Groups who take actions or make decisions are authorized and accountable
  5. Responsibility = Contracted party to act responsibly
  6. Fairness = No unfair advantage to any one particular party


How does TOGAF Define Architecture Governance?

If you had gone through my earlier posts (What is TOGAF?, Defining Requirement and Planning a project) you would realize that TOGAF is not about solution design or application development. It provides a set of guidelines of what the final solution should adhere to. That is what the Architecture Governance all about. It talks about:

  • Control: Implementing a system of controls over the creation and monitoring of all architectural components and activities, to ensure the effective introduction, implementation, and evolution of architectures within the organization
  • Compliance: Implementing a system to ensure compliance with internal and external standards and regulatory obligations
  • Management: Establishing processes that support effective management of the above processes within agreed parameters
  • Accountability: Developing practices that ensure accountability to a clearly identified stakeholder community, both inside and outside the organization

How do you enforce the governance?

TOGAF will normally be initiated by CIO, but for it to succeed broad support from the rest of the organization is needed.

So the aim is to get the authority from top management in the Preliminary Phase. To ensure that the authority is recognized by the rest of the organization an “Architecture Board” in constituted. TOGAF recommends that the board should 4 to 5 permanent members, the upper limit being 10. The important point is to include all the important people in the organization.

TOGAF also recommends that there is an “Architecture Contract” for all the work that needs to be executed. Architecture Contracts are joint agreements between development partners and sponsors on the deliverables, quality, and fitness-for-purpose.

What does the Architecture Board do?

It acts as the approving and controlling authority for the following:

  • Consistency between sub-architectures
  • Identifying re-usable components
  • Flexibility of enterprise architecture; to meet business needs and utilize new technologies
  • Enforcement of Architecture Compliance
  • Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
  • Ensuring that the discipline of architecture-based development is adopted
  • Providing the basis for all decision-making with regard to changes to the architectures
  • Supporting a visible escalation capability for out-of-bounds decisions

The Meaning of Architecture Compliance

Finally, I find the following representation of “what different types of compliance are” to quiet nice:

Irrelevant

No relation between Standard & Implementation

Consistent

There is overlap between Standard & Implementation properly

Compliant

Implementation is a subset of Standard and is done properly

Conformant

Standard only covers part of implementation but that part is done properly

Fully Compliant

Implementation is exactly as per Standard

Non-Conformant

The square indicates that overlap has deviation

Defining Requirement – the TOGAF way

If you are new to TOGAF, you may be wondering how this process is different from what you do in a typical “Requirement Analysis” phase of software development. Once I tell you that the many of the techniques recommended in TOGAF are what you are already using, like UML modeling techniques like Activity Models, Use-Case Models and Class Models, you may think why bother with TOGAF?

What you really do differently in TOGAF is that you take a much wider perspective of the requirement. There are three important things that you need to do:

  1. Explicitly document the current state, the expected future state and identify the gap
  2. Assess impact of the change on other projects and other organizational initiatives
  3. State the change from the perspective (viewpoint) of different stakeholders and get their buy in

While doing this, you need to keep in mind the following:

  1. Are you adhering to all the relevant organizational standards & guidelines?
  2. Have you made an explicit attempt of reuse?

Steps for Defining the Requirement

We had discussed the following lists (without the 3 steps in “Define Requirement”) in my earlier posts –
What is TOGAF? & Planning a project.

  1. Tailor TOGAF to suit your need
  2. Define scope of work and prepare plan for rollout
    1. Define the scope and get approval from the sponsor
    2. Define requirement in terms of how the business process will change, what data, application and technical infrastructure is required for accomplishing the work
      1. What should the new business process be?
      2. What application & data do we need to support the changed process?
      3. What technology infrastructure do we require to implement the change?
    3. Select a suitable solution and make the implementation plan
  3. Oversee development and implementation
  4. Manage post-implementation change

Here are some of the terminologies used in TOGAF and their meaning as used in TOGAF.

View & Viewpoint

  • View = What you see or what a stakeholder sees
  • Viewpoint = Model or description of the information contained in a view

Baseline, Target & Gap

  • Baseline = Where you are now
  • Target = Where you want to be
  • Gap = What needs to change

Deliverable & Artifact

  • Deliverable = Contractually specified document – formally reviewed, agreed, and signed off by the stakeholders
  • Artifact = Architecture from a specific viewpoint – can be a Catalog, a Matrix or a Diagram

What artifacts do you may produce? 

Catalog Matrix Diagram
Business Architecture
  • Organization/Actor catalog
  • Driver/Goal/Objective catalog
  • Role catalog
  • Business Service/Function catalog
  • Location catalog
  • Process/Event/Control/Product catalog
  • Contract/Measure catalog
  • Business Interaction matrix
  • Actor/Role matrix
  • Business Footprint diagram
  • Business Service/Information diagram
  • Functional Decomposition diagram
  • Product Lifecycle diagram
  • Goal/Objective/Service diagram
  • Use-Case diagram
  • Organization Decomposition diagram
  • Process Flow diagram
  • Event diagram
Data Architecture
  • Data Entity/Data Component catalog
  • Data Entity/Business Function matrix
  • System/Data matrix
  • Class diagram
  • Data Dissemination diagram
  • Data Lifecycle diagram
  • Data Security diagram
  • Data Migration diagram
  • Class Hierarchy diagram
Application Architecture
  • Application Portfolio catalog
  • Interface catalog
  • System/Organization matrix
  • Role/System matrix
  • Application Interaction matrix
  • System/Function matrix
  • Application Communication diagram
  • Application and User Location diagram
  • System Use-Case diagram
  • Enterprise Manageability diagram
  • Process/System Realization diagram
  • Software Engineering diagram
  • Application Migration diagram
  • Software Distribution diagram
Technology Architecture
  • Technology Standards catalog
  • Technology Portfolio catalog
  • System/Technology matrix
  • Environments and Locations diagram
  • Platform Decomposition diagram
  • Processing diagram
  • Networked Computing/Hardware diagram
  • Communications Engineering diagram