TOGAF Foundation Level Certification – Another Practice Test (free sample questions)

As I had mentioned earlier, there is a paucity of free sample questions for the TOGAF 9 foundation or the part 1 test. I had created one set earlier and there are two other set available for free:

Here is another set of 40 questions.

Basic Concepts (3 questions)

1. What according to TOGAF is an Enterprise?

(A)

Entire business group or corporation comprising of all local and international main and sub offices, divisions, subsidiaries, and departments

(B)

Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals

(C)

Any large organization

(D)

An enterprise is an organization that uses computers

(E)

A large corporation or government agency, but it may also refer to a company of any size with many systems and users to manage
2. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about an Architecture Framework?

(A)

An architecture framework is a tool that can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures

(B)

An architecture framework should describe a method for designing an information system in terms of a set of building blocks, and for showing how the building blocks fit together

(C)

Architecture Framework is a set of resources, guidelines, templates, background information, etc. provided to help the architect establish an architecture practice within an organization

(D)

An architecture framework should contain a set of tools and provide a common vocabulary

(E)

An architecture framework should also include a list of recommended standards and compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks
3. Which of the following statement is NOT a reason for suitability of TOGAF as a Framework for Enterprise Architecture?

(A)

It provides an immediate return on investment

(B)

It has been developed through the collaborative efforts of more than 300 Architecture Forum member companies from some of the world’s leading IT customers and vendors and represents best practice in architecture development

(C)

It will allow architectures to be developed that are consistent, reflect the needs of stakeholders, employ best practice, and give due consideration both to current requirements and to the likely future needs of the business

(D)

It plays an important role in helping to “de-mystify” and de-risk the architecture development process

(E)

It provides a platform for adding value, and enables users to build genuinely open systems-based solutions to address their business issues and needs

Core Concepts (3 questions)

4. Which of the following is NOT a part of the Architecture Capability Framework?

(A)

Standards with which new architectures must comply

(B)

Guidelines for establishing an Architecture Capability within an organization

(C)

A set of role, skill, and experience norms for staff undertaking enterprise architecture work

(D)

Techniques for evaluating and quantifying an organization’s maturity in enterprise architecture

(E)

Framework and guidelines for Architecture Governance
5. TOGAF recommends running the enterprise architecture practice like any other operational unit within a business. For that, which of the following processes capability needs to be established?

(A)

Environment Management, Supplier Management and Network Management

(B)

Risk Management, Resource Management and IT Management

(C)

Communications and Stakeholder Management, Quality Management and Presentation Management

(D)

Financial Management, Performance Management and Service Management

(E)

Configuration Management, Release Management and Change management
6. According to TOGAF Document Categorization Model, which are the four categories of content?

(A)

Central, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting

(B)

Core, Mandated, Reference and Supplemental

(C)

Central, Mandated, Recommended and Supplemental

(D)

Central, Mandated, Reference and Supplemental

(E)

Core, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting

Introduction to the ADM (3 questions)

7. Which of the following statements is NOT true for ADM?

(A)

ADM defines a recommended sequence for the various phases and steps involved in developing an organization-wide enterprise architecture

(B)

ADM does not determine the scope for an enterprise architecture activity; this must be determined by the organization itself

(C)

The numbering scheme provided in the TOGAF ADM for its outputs is a mandated practice

(D)

An output in an early ADM phase may be modified in a later phase

(E)

The ADM has ten phases
8. Which of the following is a Key Point of the ADM Cycle?

(A)

Decisions taken should be based on the value accruing to the enterprise only

(B)

ADM provides a recommended the scope of activity which can be tailored by the organization itself

(C)

The main guideline is to focus on what creates value to the enterprise, and to select horizontal and vertical scope, and project schedules, accordingly

(D)

Where necessary, use of the ADM should be tailored to meet the needs of the organization but phases cannot be omitted

(E)

Though ADM is iterative, the decisions regarding enterprise coverage, level of detail, time period and architecture asset re-use needs to be take upfront
9. Which of the following is NOT a correct reason for limiting the scope of the Architecture Activity?

(A)

The inflexibility of the baseline IT technical architecture

(B)

The realities of resource and time constraints often mean there is not enough time, funding, or resources to build a top-down, all-inclusive architecture description encompassing all four architecture domains

(C)

To ensure an appropriate demarcation between the architecture effort and other, related activities (system design, system engineering, system development)

(D)

The organizational authority of the team producing the architecture

(E)

The objectives and stakeholder concerns to be addressed within the architecture

The Enterprise Continuum and Tools (4 questions)

10. Which among the following statements about Architecture Continuum is NOT true?

(A)

It offers a consistent way to define and understand the generic rules, representations, and relationships in an architecture, including traceability and derivation relationships

(B)

It represents a structuring of Architecture Building Blocks (ABBs) which are re-usable architecture assets

(C)

Every artifact in the Solutions Continuum has a one to one relationship with a corresponding artifact in the Architecture Continuum

(D)

It shows the relationships among foundational frameworks, common system architectures, industry architectures, and enterprise architectures

(E)

It is a useful tool to discover commonality and eliminate unnecessary redundancy
11. The relationship between the Architecture Continuum and the Solutions Continuum is one of ___ (complete the sentence).

(A)

Guidance, derivation and support

(B)

Guidance, direction and support

(C)

Governance, direction and support

(D)

Guidance, direction and supplementing

(E)

Governance, derivation and supplementing
12. What are the levels of granularity the Architecture Landscape is divided into?

(A)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(B)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Transition Architectures

(C)

Enterprise Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(D)

Enterprise Architectures, Segment Architectures and Transition Architectures

(E)

Enterprise Architectures, Solution Architectures and Transition Architectures
13. Which of the following is NOT a stated reason for using a tool for Enterprise Continuum?

(A)

Promote re-use

(B)

Enable sharing of architecture information within an organization

(C)

Facilitate easier maintenance of the software assets

(D)

Ensure common terminology is used

(E)

Provide stakeholders with relevant models

ADM Phases (9 questions)

14. Which of the following is NOT an objective of the Preliminary phase?

(A)

Understand the business environment

(B)

Ensure high-level management commitment and obtain agreement on scope

(C)

Establish principles and establish governance structure

(D)

Agree architecture method to be adopted

(E)

Articulate an Architecture Vision and value proposition
15. What first-cut, high-level description does Architecture Vision provide?

(A)

Baseline Architectures, Target Architectures and Gap Analysis

(B)

Architecture Definition, Architecture Specification and Architecture Roadmap

(C)

Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures

(D)

Business Architectures, Data Architectures, Application Architectures and Technology Architectures

(E)

Enterprise Architectures, Solution Architectures and Transition Architectures
16. Which are the Key Considerations for the Data Architecture?

(A)

Data Analysis, Data Integrity and Data Security

(B)

Data Management, Data Integrity and Data Governance

(C)

Data Management, Data Migration and Data Governance

(D)

Data Analysis, Data Migration and Data Governance

(E)

Data Analysis, Data Integrity and Data Governance
17. Which of the following is NOT an activity in Phase E?

(A)

Perform initial implementation planning

(B)

Group projects into Transition Architectures

(C)

Decide on approach — Make versus buy versus re-use

(D)

Identify the major implementation projects

(E)

Perform a cost/benefit analysis and a risk assessment
18. Which of the following is NOT an approach in Phase G?

(A)

Creation of an Implementation and Migration Plan in co-operation with the portfolio and project managers

(B)

Adopt a phased deployment schedule that reflects the business priorities embodied in the Architecture Roadmap

(C)

Follow the organization’s standard for corporate, IT, and Architecture Governance

(D)

Use the organization’s established portfolio/program management approach, where this exists

(E)

Define an operations framework to ensure the effective long life of the deployed solution
19. Which of the following statements about Requirements Management phase is correct?

(A)

This phase is executed at the beginning

(B)

It focuses on minimizing changes to requirement

(C)

It does not dispose of, address, or prioritize any requirements; this is done within the relevant phase of the ADM

(D)

TOGAF has a recommend process for requirements management

(E)

Prioritizing requirement is an activity of this phase
20. How is the scope of the enterprise architecture projects decided?

(A)

The scope is defined in phase A and refined in phases B, C and D

(B)

Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase and it is defined in phase A

(C)

The scope is defined in the Preliminary phase and agreement is reached in phase A

(D)

Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase but the definition happens through phase A to D

(E)

The scope is defined and agree upon in the Preliminary phase
21. In which phase is the make versus buy versus re-use decision taken?

(A)

Phase A

(B)

Phase D

(C)

Phase E

(D)

Phase F

(E)

Phase G
22. In which phase are the Architecture Contracts prepared?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase E

(D)

Phase F

(E)

Phase G

ADM Guidelines and Techniques (6 questions)

23. Which of the following is not a part of the guidelines for adapting the ADM process?

(A)

Coexisting with other Enterprise Architecture frameworks

(B)

Ways to apply iteration to the ADM

(C)

Applying the ADM at different levels of the enterprise

(D)

Security considerations when applying the ADM

(E)

Using TOGAF to define Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs)
24. Regarding Architecture Principle, which of the following statement is NOT correct?

(A)

TOGAF specifies a template for defining Architecture Principles

(B)

Architecture principles are a subset of IT principles that relate to architecture work

(C)

Principles must be derived from business goal

(D)

There are five criteria that distinguish a good set of principles – Understandability, Robustness, Completeness, Consistency and Stability

(E)

Principles should not be contradictory to the point where adhering to one principle would violate the spirit of another
25. Where the process of creating a Business Scenario does starts?

(A)

Business and Technical environments

(B)

Problem statements

(C)

Desired objectives

(D)

Human participants

(E)

Roles and responsibilities
26. In which phases is the Gap Analysis technique used?

(A)

Phases B, C, D, and E

(B)

Phases B, C, and D

(C)

Phases A, B, C, D, and E

(D)

Phases A, B, C and D

(E)

Phases C, D, and E
27. For which phases is the Business Transformation Readiness Assessment a key technique?

(A)

Phases E only

(B)

Phases E, F and G

(C)

Phases A, E and F

(D)

Phases from A to F

(E)

Phases E and F
28. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Corporate Strategic Plan manages and creates Capabilities

(B)

Capability consists of Capability Increment

(C)

Capability is documented in Architecture Vision

(D)

Capability Increment is documented by Transition Architecture

(E)

Architecture and Solution Building Blocks are the basis for Capability Increment Solutions

Architecture Governance (4 questions)

29. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Effective governance ensures that problems are identified early and that subsequent changes to the environment occur in a controlled manner

(B)

Architecture Governance is the practice by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

(C)

Architecture Governance typically operates within a hierarchy of governance structures

(D)

Corporate Governance is a broad topic and outside the scope of the TOGAF framework

(E)

Architecture Governance helps creating organizational structures that enabled each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency
30. Which are the six characteristics used in TOGAF to highlight both the value and necessity for governance?

(A)

Discipline, Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility and Fairness

(B)

Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness and Compliance

(C)

Independence, Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance and Discipline

(D)

Accountability, Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance, Discipline and Transparency

(E)

Responsibility, Fairness, Compliance, Discipline, Transparency and Independence
31. Which of the following is NOT the responsibility of Architecture Board?

(A)

Ensuring consistency between sub-architectures

(B)

Identifying re-usable components

(C)

Identification of risk and subsequent risk mitigation

(D)

Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(E)

Providing the basis for all decision-making with regard to changes to the architectures
32. Which of the following is NOT a recommendation for Architecture Capability building?

(A)

Establishing a sustainable Architecture Capability within an organization can be achieved by adhering to the same approach that is used to establish any other capability

(B)

TOGAF states that Architecture Capability development should not be seen as a phase of an architecture project but as a separate one-off project

(C)

The ADM is an ideal method to be used to architect and govern the implementation of such Architecture Capability

(D)

Applying the ADM with the specific Architecture Vision to establish an architecture practice within the organization would help building Architecture Capability

(E)

Implementing any capability within an organization would require the design of the four domain architectures

Architecture Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders (2 questions)

33. What question should the architect answer to ensure the completeness of the architecture?

(A)

Can the views be connected to each other?

(B)

Can the conflicting concerns be reconciled?

(C)

What trade-offs have been made?

(D)

Does it address all the concerns of its stakeholders?

(E)

Is the architecture implementable?
34. Which of the following relationship between view, viewpoint, stakeholder and architecture is correct?

(A)

Stakeholder concern is address by one or more views

(B)

An architecture consists of multiple viewpoints

(C)

One of more viewpoint can be used to cover a concern

(D)

A Viewpoint conforms to a view

(E)

Viewpoint library contains multiple views

Building Blocks (2 questions)

35. Which among the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

TOGAF recommends the way in which functionality, products, and custom developments are assembled into building blocks

(B)

Every organization must decide for itself what arrangement of building blocks works best for it

(C)

A good choice of building blocks can lead to improvements in legacy system integration, interoperability, and flexibility in the creation of new systems and applications

(D)

An architecture is a composition of a set of building blocks and the specification of how those building blocks are connected

(E)

Various building blocks in an architecture specify the services required in an enterprise specific system
36. Which among the following statements about patterns is NOT correct?

(A)

Pattern is “an idea that has been useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others”

(B)

Patterns are considered to be a way of putting building blocks into context

(C)

Patterns can tell when, why, and what trade-offs you have to make

(D)

Patterns are a package of functionality defined to meet business needs across an organization

(E)

Patterns offer the promise of helping the architect to solutions that have been proven to deliver effective in the past

ADM Deliverables (2 questions)

37. What does the Architecture Requirements Specification provide?

(A)

A qualitative view of the solution and aims to communicate the intent of the architects

(B)

A quantitative view of the solution stating measurable criteria

(C)

List of individual increments of change

(D)

An aspirational view of the end architecture product

(E)

Context for architecture work by describing the needs
38. Which of the following is NOT a key ADM Deliverable?

(A)

Architecture Contract

(B)

Architecture Principles

(C)

Architecture Repository

(D)

Change Request

(E)

Integrated Information Infrastructure

TOGAF Reference Models (2 questions)

39. Which among the following are NOT service categories in the TRM?

(A)

Data management and data interchange

(B)

User interface, graphics and image

(C)

Security, system and network management

(D)

Software engineering

(E)

Information brokers and application integrators
40. Which among the following statements about Boundary-less Information Flow is NOT correct?

(A)

It is a trademark of The Open Group

(B)

It provides insights related to customer needs

(C)

An infrastructure that provides Boundaryless Information Flow has open standard components

(D)

Its problem space is one that is shared by many customer members of The Open Group, and by many similar organizations worldwide

(E)

It is a shorthand representation of “access to integrated information to support business process improvements”

Answers

  1. B – Any collection of organizations that has a common set of goals
  2. C – Architecture Framework is a set of resources, guidelines, templates, background information, etc. provided to help the architect establish an architecture practice within an organization
  3. A – It provides an immediate return on investment
  4. A – Standards with which new architectures must comply
  5. D – Financial Management, Performance Management and Service Management
  6. E – Core, Mandated, Recommended and Supporting
  7. C – The numbering scheme provided in the TOGAF ADM for its outputs is a mandated practice
  8. C – The main guideline is to focus on what creates value to the enterprise, and to select horizontal and vertical scope, and project schedules, accordingly
  9. A – The inflexibility of the baseline IT technical architecture
  10. C – Every artifact in the Solutions Continuum has a one to one relationship with a corresponding artifact in the Architecture Continuum
  11. B – Guidance, direction and support
  12. A – Strategic Architectures, Segment Architectures and Capability Architectures
  13. C – Facilitate easier maintenance of the software assets
  14. E – Articulate an Architecture Vision and value proposition
  15. D – Business Architectures, Data Architectures, Application Architectures and Technology Architectures
  16. C – Data Management, Data Migration and Data Governance
  17. E – Perform a cost/benefit analysis and a risk assessment
  18. A – Creation of an Implementation and Migration Plan in co-operation with the portfolio and project managers
  19. C – It does not dispose of, address, or prioritize any requirements; this is done within the relevant phase of the ADM
  20. B – Agreement on the scope is reached in the Preliminary phase and it is defined in phase A
  21. C – Phase E
  22. E – Phase G
  23. A – Coexisting with other Enterprise Architecture frameworks
  24. C – Principles must be derived from business goal
  25. B – Problem statements
  26. A – Phases B, C, D, and E
  27. C – Phases A, E and F
  28. C – Capability is documented in Architecture Vision
  29. E – Architecture Governance helps creating organizational structures that enabled each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency
  30. A – Discipline, Transparency, Independence, Accountability, Responsibility and Fairness
  31. C – Identification of risk and subsequent risk mitigation
  32. B – TOGAF states that Architecture Capability development should not be seen as a phase of an architecture project but as a separate one-off project
  33. D – Does it address all the concerns of its stakeholders?
  34. C – One of more viewpoint can be used to cover a concern
  35. A – TOGAF recommends the way in which functionality, products, and custom developments are assembled into building blocks
  36. D – Patterns are a package of functionality defined to meet business needs across an organization
  37. B – A quantitative view of the solution stating measurable criteria
  38. E – Integrated Information Infrastructure
  39. E – Information brokers and application integrators
  40. B – It provides insights related to customer needs
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TOGAF Foundation Level Certification – Aid for preparation (free sample questions)

If you plan to appear for a TOGAF foundation level certification or part 1 exam, one of the difficulties you will face is a lack of free sample questions. Some questions are provided as a part of the study guide, but if you want to more practice then you will have tough time locating anything freely available on the net. Here is couple of links which I could locate:

This lack of practice multiple choice questions prompted me to create my own set. I have gone by the advice of Chris Eaton to create this paper before I take the test to avoid any issue that these questions copy the official exam questions. Here is one set of 40 questions:

Basic Concepts (3 questions)

1.

Which is NOT one of the seven parts of TOGAF document?

(A)

ADM Guidelines and Techniques

(B)

Architecture Content Framework

(C)

Architecture Governance

(D)

TOGAF Reference Models

(E)

Architecture Capability Framework

 

2.

What is Architecture in the Context of TOGAF?

(A)

The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution

(B)

A rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g. the behavior) between them

(C)

An architecture is the most important, pervasive, top-level, strategic inventions, decisions, and their associated rationales about the overall structure (i.e., essential elements and their relationships) and associated characteristics and behavior

(D)

Architecture is the use of abstractions and models to simplify and communicate complex structures and processes to improve understanding and forecasting

(E)

A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation or the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time

 

3.

Which of the following according to TOGAF is NOT a reason to use an Enterprise Architecture Framework?

(A)

It will speed up and simplify architecture development

(B)

It will ensure more complete coverage of the designed solution

(C)

It will make certain that the architecture selected allows for future growth in response to the needs of the business

(D)

Its use may be mandated by federal agencies

(E)

It will ensure compliance and protect the interest of stakeholders

 

Core Concepts (3 questions)

4.

Which are the three main categories of architectural work product does Architecture Content Framework specify?

(A)

Architecture Vision, Architecture Requirements Specification and Architecture Roadmap

(B)

Source Architecture, Target Architecture and Gap Analysis

(C)

Architecture Vision, Architecture Design Document and Transition Architecture

(D)

Building Block, Artifact and Deliverable

(E)

Request for Architecture Work, Statement of Architecture Work and Architecture Contract

 

5.

Which is NOT a part of Architecture Repository?

(A)

The organizationally tailored application of an architecture framework, including a meta-model for architecture content

(B)

The parameters, structures, and processes that support governance of the Architecture Repository

(C)

An architectural view of the building blocks that are in use within the organization today

(D)

A Stakeholder analysis and map

(E)

A record of governance activity across the enterprise

 

6.

Which of these are NOT the benefits of Architecture Governance?

(A)

Increased visibility supporting internal processes and external parties’ requirements

(B)

Greater shareholder value

(C)

Improved software development productivity

(D)

Protection of the existing asset base through maximizing re-use

(E)

Controlled risk management

 

Introduction to the ADM (3 questions)

7.

Does ADM support iteration?

(A)

Yes, you can only cycle around the ADM

(B)

Yes, you can cycle around all single individual phase

(C)

Yes, you can cycle around any combination of phases

(D)

Yes, you can cycle around ADM, iterate across specific phases or cycle through some of the phases

(E)

No, ADM is not iterative

 

8.

Which of the following statements about the relation between ADM and Architecture Repository is correct?

(A)

At relevant places throughout the ADM, there are reminders to consider which architecture assets from the Architecture Repository the architect should use

(B)

The practical implementation of the Enterprise Continuum will typically take the form of an Architecture Repository that includes reference architectures, models, and patterns mandated in TOGAF

(C)

In executing the ADM, the architect is only developing a snapshot of the enterprise at particular points in time, and populating the organization’s own Architecture Repository is outside the scope of ADM

(D)

The first execution of the ADM is simplified because of the re-use potential of the standard architecture assets available for re-use in TOGAF Architecture Repository

(E)

Architecture Repository is only accessed in the Requirement Management phase

 

9.

Which of the following is NOT a valid reason for wanting to tailor ADM for the specific need of the enterprise?

(A)

An important consideration is that the order of the phases in the ADM is to some extent dependent on the maturity of the architecture discipline within the enterprise concerned

(B)

An enterprise may wish to use or tailor the ADM in conjunction with the security best practices in use in the enterprise

(C)

The ADM is one of many corporate processes that make up the corporate governance model for an enterprise

(D)

The ADM is being mandated for use by a prime or lead contractor in an outsourcing situation, and needs to be tailored to achieve a suitable compromise between the contractor’s existing practices and the contracting enterprise’s requirements

(E)

The enterprise is a small-to-medium enterprise, and wishes to use a “cut-down” version of the ADM

 

The Enterprise Continuum and Tools (5 questions)

10.

Which of the following statements about Enterprise Continuum is NOT correct?

(A)

It is a view of the Architecture Repository that provides methods for classifying architecture and solution artifacts, both internal and external to the Architecture Repository

(B)

It is an important aid to communication and understanding, both within individual enterprises, and between customer enterprises and vendor organizations

(C)

It also represents an aid to organizing re-usable architecture and solution assets

(D)

It is a physical repository of all architecture assets models, patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts produced during application of the ADM

(E)

It represents an aid to communication

 

11.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

The Architecture Continuum provides a consistent way to describe and understand the implementation of the assets

(B)

A Foundation Architecture supports the complete enterprise operating environment

(C)

Common Systems Architectures guide the creation of an architecture useful for building common solutions across a wide number of relevant domains

(D)

Industry Architectures guide the integration of common systems components with industry specific components

(E)

Organization-Specific Architectures describe and guide the final deployment of user-written or third-party components that constitute effective solutions for particular enterprises

 

12.

Which of the following is NOT a part of Architecture Repository?

(A)

Architecture Landscape

(B)

Standards Information Base

(C)

Architecture Metamodel

(D)

Architecture Capability

(E)

Compliance Log

 

13.

What is a Standards Information Base?

(A)

It holds guidelines, templates, patterns

(B)

It holds a set of specifications, to which architectures must conform

(C)

It defines the parameters, structures, and processes that support governance

(D)

It describes the organizationally tailored application of an architecture framework

(E)

It holds view of the building blocks that are in use within the organization today

 

14.

What of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)

Enterprise Continuum is a virtual repository where as the Architecture Repository is a physical repository

(B)

Enterprise Continuum can be thought of as a view of the Architecture Repository

(C)

The Architecture Repository defines six classes for architectural information held in the repository

(D)

TOGAF recognizes the need to manage the content of the Enterprise Continuum using tools but does not provide any guidance on tool selection

(E)

The Solutions Continuum is a population of the architecture with reference building blocks – either purchased products or built components – that represent a solution to the enterprise’s business needs

 

ADM Phases (9 questions)

15.

In which phase does the Business Scenarios first get defined?

(A)

Preliminary phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase C

(E)

Phase D

 

16.

Which of the following statements about Business Architecture is NOT correct?

(A)

A knowledge of the Business Architecture is a prerequisite for architecture work in any other domain

(B)

Business Architecture is often necessary as a means of demonstrating the business value of subsequent architecture work

(C)

Business Architecture looks at the Enterprise in abstraction and does not look at the relationship between people and process

(D)

Business Architecture should support the agreed Architecture Vision

(E)

Business Architecture should demonstrate how stakeholder concerns are addressed

 

17.

Which of the following is NOT in the scope of Technology Architecture documentation?

(A)

Fundamental organization of the IT system

(B)

The principles governing its design and evolution IT system

(C)

Hardware, software, and communications technology and their relationships to each other and the environment

(D)

Technical implementation architecture

(E)

Target Technology Architecture that will form the basis of the subsequent implementation and migration planning

 

18.

Which of the following is NOT an objective of phase F?

(A)

To ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the various management frameworks in use within the enterprise

(B)

To prioritize all work packages, projects, and building blocks by assigning business value to each and conducting a cost/benefit analysis

(C)

To finalize the Architecture Vision and Architecture Definition Documents, in line with the agreed implementation approach

(D)

To confirm the Transition Architectures with the relevant stakeholders

(E)

Formulate recommendations for each implementation project

 

19.

Which of the following is NOT an objective of phase H?

(A)

Assess the performance of the architecture and make recommendations for change

(B)

Mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution

(C)

Maximize the business value from the architecture and ongoing operations

(D)

Ensure that Baseline Architectures continue to be fit-for-purpose

(E)

Establish an architecture change management process for the new enterprise architecture baseline that is achieved with completion of Phase G

 

20.

In which phase is an agreement reached on the architecture method to be adopted?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase E

(E)

Requirement Management Phase

 

21.

How is the Transition Architecture formulated?

(A)

It emerges through phase B to D and is finalized in phase E

(B)

It is first formulated in phase E and gets refined in phase F and G

(C)

It is formulated in phase E and then split into implementation projects

(D)

Based on the implementation projects selected in phase E, Transition Architectures is arrived at in phase F

(E)

In Phase E major implementation projects grouped into Transition Architectures and they are confirmed with relevant stakeholders in phase F

 

22.

In which phase is the cost/benefit analysis done?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase E

(E)

Phase F

 

23.

How is the Architecture Governance performed?

(A)

It is established in Phase A and operated on Phase F to H

(B)

It is established in Preliminary Phase, refined in Phase A and operated on Phase F to H

(C)

It is established in Phase A and operated on Phase E to G

(D)

It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on Phase G and H

(E)

It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on all subsequent phases

 

ADM Guidelines and Techniques (6 questions)

24.

Which of the following is NOT an ADM Guideline or Technique?

(A)

Architecture Principles

(B)

Usecase Modeling

(C)

Architecture Patterns

(D)

Interoperability Requirements

(E)

Capability-Based Planning

 

25.

Which of the following is NOT described by a Business Scenario?

(A)

A business process, application, or set of applications

(B)

The business and technology environment

(C)

The people and computing components who execute the scenario

(D)

The underlying business vision

(E)

The desired outcome of proper execution

 

26.

Which of the following is NOT the source of a business domain gap?

(A)

People gaps

(B)

Process gaps

(C)

Tools gaps

(D)

Information gaps

(E)

Data relationship gaps

 

27.

In which phase are the nature and security considerations of information and service exchanges determined?

(A)

Preliminary Phase

(B)

Phase A

(C)

Phase B

(D)

Phase C

(E)

Phase D

 

28.

In which Phase is the risk identification and mitigation assessment worksheets are maintained as governance artifacts and are kept up-to-date?

(A)

Phase A

(B)

Phase E

(C)

Phase F

(D)

Phase G

(E)

Phase H

 

29.

Which among the following is a technique for discovering the need for a Capability?

(A)

Gap Analysis

(B)

Architecture Patterns

(C)

Interoperability Requirements

(D)

Business Scenario

(E)

Business Transformation Readiness Assessment

 

Architecture Governance (3 questions)

30.

Which of the following is NOT a part of Architecture Governance?

(A)

Implementing a system of controls over the creation and monitoring of all architectural components and activities

(B)

Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(C)

Implementing a system to ensure compliance with internal and external standards and regulatory obligations

(D)

Establishing processes that support effective management of the above processes within agreed parameters

(E)

Developing practices that ensure accountability to a clearly identified stakeholder community

 

31.

What does the Conceptual Structure of Architecture Governance Framework contain?

(A)

Compliance, Business Control , Monitoring and Reporting

(B)

Process, Content, Monitoring and Reporting

(C)

Process, Content, Repository and Process Flow Control

(D)

Content, Context, Process and Reporting

(E)

Business Control, Content, Monitoring and Reporting

 

32.

Which of the following is NOT the purpose of Architecture Compliance Review?

(A)

To improve the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization

(B)

To identify where the standards themselves may require modification

(C)

To identify services that are currently application-specific but might be provided as part of the enterprise infrastructure

(D)

To document strategies for collaboration, resource sharing, and other synergies across multiple architecture teams

(E)

To take advantage of advances in technology

 

Architecture Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders (2 questions)

33.

Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about concern?

(A)

Concerns determine the acceptability of the system

(B)

The terms “concern” and “requirement” are synonymous

(C)

Concerns are the root of the process of decomposition into requirements

(D)

Concerns are represented in the architecture by these requirements

(E)

Each stakeholder typically has interests in, or concerns relative to, that system

 

34.

Which steps among the following is NOT a recommended step to create the required views for a particular architecture?

(A)

Refer to any existing libraries of viewpoints

(B)

Select key stakeholders

(C)

Analyze their requirement and document them

(D)

Select appropriate viewpoints

(E)

Generate views of the system using the selected viewpoints as templates

 

Building Blocks (2 questions)

35.

Which of the following is NOT the characteristic of a good building block?

(A)

It considers implementation and usage, and evolves to exploit technology and standards

(B)

It may be assembled from other building blocks

(C)

It may be a subassembly of other building blocks

(D)

Ideally, a building block is re-usable and replaceable, and well specified with stable interfaces

(E)

It may specify implementation details

 

36.

What does Architecture Building Blocks do?

(A)

They define how the functionality will be realized through products and components

(B)

They capture architecture requirements

(C)

They define the implementation

(D)

They fulfill business requirements

(E)

They are product or vendor-aware

 

ADM Deliverables (2 questions)

37.

Which among the following is beyond the scope of governance of Architecture Contract?

(A)

Continuous monitoring to check integrity

(B)

Adherence to the principles and standards

(C)

Facilitate re-usablility

(D)

Identification of risks

(E)

Ensuring accountability, responsibility, and discipline

 

38.

In which phase is Capability Assessment carried out?

(A)

It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase E

(B)

It is first carried out in Preliminary Phase and updated in Phase A to E

(C)

It is first carried out in Phase A, updated in Phase E and finalized in Phase F

(D)

It is first carried out in Preliminary Phase, updated in Phase A to E and finalized in Phase F

(E)

It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase B to E

 

TOGAF Reference Models (2 questions)

39.

What is the TOGAF Technical Reference Model?

(A)

It is a reference model that focuses on the Application Software space

(B)

It is fundamentally an Application Architecture reference model – a model of the application components and application services software essential for an integrated information infrastructure

(C)

It enables each individual department to operate at maximum efficiency was for a long time accepted as the best approach to managing a large enterprise

(D)

It describes a fundamental architecture upon which other, more specific, architectures can be based

(E)

It points to rules and standards to assist in leveraging solutions and products within the value chain

 

40.

What among the following is NOT a part of the Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model taxonomy?

(A)

Information consumer application

(B)

Management utilities

(C)

Brokering application

(D)

Communication infrastructure interface

(E)

Information provider application

 

Answers

  1. C – Architecture Governance
  2. E – A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation or the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time
  3. E – It will ensure compliance and protect the interest of stakeholders
  4. D – Building Block, Artifact and Deliverable
  5. D – A Stakeholder analysis and map
  6. C – Improved software development productivity
  7. D – Yes, you can cycle around ADM, iterate across specific phases or cycle through some of the phases
  8. A – At relevant places throughout the ADM, there are reminders to consider which architecture assets from the Architecture Repository the architect should use
  9. B – An enterprise may wish to use or tailor the ADM in conjunction with the security best practices in use in the enterprise
  10. D – It is a physical repository of all architecture assets models, patterns, architecture descriptions, and other artifacts produced during application of the ADM
  11. A – The Architecture Continuum provides a consistent way to describe and understand the implementation of the assets
  12. E – Compliance Log
  13. B – It holds a set of specifications, to which architectures must conform
  14. D – TOGAF recognizes the need to manage the content of the Enterprise Continuum using tools but does not provide any guidance on tool selection
  15. B – Phase A
  16. C – Business Architecture looks at the Enterprise in abstraction and does not look at the relationship between people and process
  17. D – Technical implementation architecture
  18. E – Formulate recommendations for each implementation project
  19. B – Mobilize supporting operations that will underpin the future working lifetime of the deployed solution
  20. A – Preliminary Phase
  21. E – In Phase E major implementation projects grouped into Transition Architectures and they are confirmed with relevant stakeholders in phase F
  22. E – Phase F
  23. D – It is established in Preliminary Phase and operated on Phase G and H
  24. B – Usecase Modeling
  25. D – The underlying business vision
  26. E – Data relationship gaps
  27. B – Phase A
  28. D – Phase G
  29. D – Business Scenario
  30. B – Improving the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
  31. C – Process, Content, Repository and Process Flow Control
  32. A – To improve the maturity level of architecture discipline within the organization
  33. B – The terms “concern” and “requirement” are synonymous
  34. C – Analyze their requirement and document them
  35. E – It may specify implementation details
  36. B – They capture architecture requirements
  37. C – Facilitate re-usable
  38. A – It is first carried out in Phase A and updated in Phase E
  39. D – It describes a fundamental architecture upon which other, more specific, architectures can be based
  40. D – Communication infrastructure interface

Cloud Computing – Important Events till 2010

Have you ever wondered where did the term “Cloud Computing” originate? When did the hype around cloud start? Who are the people responsible for the idea of utility computing?

The evolution can be split into 3 phases:

  1. The Idea Phase – this started in the 1960s and stretched to the pre internet bubble era. The core idea of computing as a utility computing and grid computing developed.
  2. The Pre Cloud Phase – this started around 1999 and lasted till 2006. In this phase internet as the mechanism to provide Application as Service got developed.
  3. The Cloud Phase – this phase started in 2007 when the term cloud computing term became popular and the sub classification of IaaS, PaaS & SaaS got formalized.

1960s – Evolution of the core concept of Cloud Computing

J.C.R. Licklider

He is considered by many to be the person who brought the idea of cloud computing to the forefront.

John McCarthy

He opined that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility.”

Douglas F Parkhill

He publishes the book “The Challenge of the Computer Utility”. Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government and community forms was thoroughly explored .

1990s – The concept of the Grid

Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman

They published the book “The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure”. The analogy used was of the electricity grid where users could plug into the grid and use a metered utility service. The Grid describes how networks of computers can be made to cooperate and be brought to bear on computationally intensive tasks.

1997

Ramnath Chellappa – first known academic use of the term “Cloud Computing”

The first scholarly use of the term “cloud computing” was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa where he stated that “…computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone…”.

 

1998

Data Protection Act of UK – Long term implication for cloud computing

The act describes the legal obligations all organizations in the U.K. have in terms of handling data. The act covers such areas as data collection, data storage and data sharing. The act itself is “policed” by the Information Commissioners Office (ICO). The act covers both electronic and paper data storage.

1999

Salesforce.com – pioneer in SaaS CRM

On hindsight this proved to be proved to be a turning point in the history of cloud computing.

VMware – virtualization for x86 system

They introduced virtualization to x86 systems to address many of these challenges and transform x86 systems into a general purpose, shared hardware infrastructure that offers full isolation, mobility and operating system choice for application environments.

2000

Grid Computing – Takes off in academic circle

First IEEE conference held on Grid Computing held in Bangalore, India.

2001

SIIA – the first known use of the term SaaS

Software & Information Industry Association in a white paper uses the abbreviation SaaS and equates it to Application Service Provider (ASP).

2002

AWS – Precursor to IaaS

Amazon.com launched its Web services initiatives, allowing customers to integrate its vast online content with their own Web site. These web services expanded over time to cover computing facility on demand.

2003

Nicholas Carr – IT Does Not Matter

He published an article in Harvard Business Review titled “IT Doesn’t Matter” and followed up with couple of books titled “Does IT Matter” and “The Big Switch”. The basic proposition is that IT is becoming commoditized and becoming utility like electricity and water.

2004

Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty – The concept of “The Web as Platform”

The first Web 2.0 conference is organized in San Francisco the theme is “The Web As Platform”.

2005 – The year when nothing much happened around cloud!!

 

2006

Amazon EC2 & S3 – Launch of IaaS

Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications. Launch of S3 – What’s interesting about S3 is that they used the pricing model of “pay-per-use”. This has now become the de facto standard for cloud computing pricing.

Google Apps – Office suite as SaaS

Google Docs brought cloud computing to the forefront of public consciousness.

2007

Force.com – PaaS

Salesforce launches Force.com, their Platform as a Service offering.

Google Trend – Interest in Cloud Computing picks up

Interest in Cloud Computing picks up. Google Trends show a steady increase in interest starting third quarter of 2007.

This may be triggered by the white paper on cloud computing released IBM which talks about efficiency and innovation that can be achieved through cloud computing.

2008

Google App Engine – PaaS Offering

The pricing was aggressive with a free entry level plan and low cost computing and storage services.

Eucalyptus – Open Source platform for Private Cloud

They become the first open source AWS API compatible platform for deploying private clouds.

Gartner Hype Cycle – Cloud Computing finds a place

Cloud Computing is mentioned first time in Gartner’s Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies. It is cited as a technology of transformational importance expected to mature in 2-5 years. By the year 2009 it has reached the “Peak of Inflated Expectation”. In 2010, it has started descending towards the “Trough of Disillusionment”. Also, it is shown as two different technologies:

  • Cloud Computing
  • Cloud and Web Platform

2009

Windows Azure – Beta

The launch of Azure is a key event in the history of cloud computing with the largest software company making a small but significant shift to the web.

Amazon AWS – Becomes auto scalable

Amazon adds manageability, auto scalability and load balancing feature.

2010 – The Year of No Major Breakthrough!!!

Amazon AWS

Several improvements were announced which included EC2 Spot Instance, EC2 Cluster Compute Instance and PCI compliance and ISO 27001 certification.

Google App Engine

Many improvements – no major feature addition

Microsoft Azure

Commercial version was released.

Salesforce.com

Acquired Heraku to add Ruby – Platform as a Service to its list of offering.

Cloud Computing Trend – Minus the Hype

How intelligent are the Computers of 2011

True, the computer system Watson, created by IBM beat all human competition in the US reality quiz show Jeopardy! But does it make Watson intelligent – is it an important step towards Singularity? Is it a significant step in the field of AI? Or, is the win meaningless and does not imply anything significant? What is the future of this technology? How far are we from understanding how the brain works?

If you are not familiar with Jeopardy! Then the best place to look is, where else, Wikipedia page. Let me just mention here that the open source community is quiet excited about this win as the software component of Watson relies heavily on open source software – on Apache, Linux, Hadoop…

However, if you want to know how Watson works this is probably the best post – Could Google Play Jeopardy Like IBM’s Watson? – written by Danny Sullivan. Also, here are some thoughts on what Watson can be used for in the future – Envisioning IBM’s Watson computer as a Smartphone app.

Is the core technology inside Watson significantly ahead of the others?

How well does it compare with Google? What about Microsoft? What about the semantic question answer engine – Wolfram? Here is an interesting post by Stephen Wolfram – Jeopardy, IBM, and Wolfram|Alpha.

To quote from the post:

… just feeding Jeopardy clues into it, and seeing what documents get matched. Well, just for fun, we tried that. We sampled randomly from the 200,000 or so Jeopardy clues that have been aired. Then we took each clue and fed it as input (without quotes) to a search engine. Then we looked at the search engine result page, and (a) saw how frequently the correct Jeopardy answer appeared somewhere in the titles or text snippets on the page, and (b) saw how frequently it appeared in the top document returned by the search engine…”

There is no way to tell if Watson is a giant leap forward or it is so tailored for Jeopardy! that it is of not much direct use elsewhere. The opinion in the blogosphere is divided. Personally, I find it difficult to believe that even if Google does not have the technology today, it will not take them more than 6-9 months to match or exceed it.

Why has Google not attempted something like this?

Here are the possibilities:

  1. The technology is indeed very advanced and Google cannot easily replicate it.
  2. Wait for few months and Google will have something similar in place.
  3. Google does not perceive any business value for doing this – after all it is already close to 70% accurate in retrieving the correct page.
  4. The extra computation needed to arrive at the answer will be too much and the speed of response will suffer.
  5. Giving an answer instead of the links will adversely affect the advertisement revenue.
  6. The technology inside Watson is too Jeopardy! specific and cannot be easily generalized.

Take your pick!

Is IBM only interested in selling hardware?

This TED talk gives you some insight into Watson. The participants are Steven Baker (author of Final Jeopardy!), Kerrie Holley (IBM Fellow looking for Watson’s next job), Dr. Herbert Chase (Columbia University Professor of Clinical Medicine) and Dr. David Ferrucci (IBM Watson Principal Investigator).

Dr. David Ferrucci talked sense. According to him about 20-25 people worked for 4 years to bring Watson to what it is today. The answer I really like was his reply to the question “Does Watson think?” His response was “Do submarines swim?”

However, I cannot say the same for what Kerrie Holley said. He was asked what “Watson can be used for?” His response left me speechless! How can somebody who is in charge of looking for Watson’s next job make such naïve statements? How can he be so misinformed about what Watson is? Read it for yourself – I have transcribed his reply here:

Business Analytics is a huge area. Improving decision making … making fact based decision … evidence based decision. This is something that C-suite executives are going to love. If you think what PCs have done to enable and make them more effective … think about what internet has done. I think this represents the next stage of evolution because suddenly they have the C-suite assistant and they can begin to ask questions like if I do this if I do that what impact it is going to have on my profit, what impact will it have on my revenue? If my company is under siege financially and I have to make some cuts in my marketing budget, do I cut what I spend on TV, do I cut the print. Suddenly I can ask these questions … not only do I get an answer and probability but also get the reason why the answer of why those answers are of 80% probability or 70%. So that is an example of C-suite assistant … this is going to be a powerful tool … based on analytics … based on all the technologies you see in Watson. The brilliance of human is the ability to ask questions … that is what the machine does not do right now … so it is a great complement.

If you look at city planners who are planning traffic who are dealing with congestion … dealing with weather … dealing with accidents … this could provide another tool to planners to make better decision dynamic real-time decisions of routing traffic. Look at it as a navigator on steroid … whether it is a smart phone … whether it is a navigator on a car … we also have this capability as well where we can ask questions about we need to get here in 5 minutes … there is an accident in a road right now … what do you recommend? I think that is a powerful capability as well. Also from a travel and entertainment standpoint our ability … may be I am stuck in Alaska and I need to get into London … whatever the situation is … now use this technology to get me out of the bind … but may be to recreationally to help me plan the most optimum trip based on my preferences … based on what is happening in the world.

Give me a break! Is Watson an analytics engine? Is it a GIS software?

IBM says the technology is available starting at a million dollar which includes hardware and software. Details are not yet available on what you will actually get for this money – let us wait and see. I am also curious to know if the push for healthcare industry is because of the federal spending.

Also will there be a new dot on Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies next year?

BTW: This is what IBM says about Watson